Discuss Chugtai‟s „Lihaaf‟ as a feminist text.

Ismat Chughtai as a writer is known for her straight forward and candid writings. She was able to see through the hypocritical attitude of the society of her times and was bold enough to pen down exactly what she saw. This was at a time when women and especially Muslim women spent their life confined … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন

The focal theme of „The Holy Panchayat‟ is “upholding justice”. Discuss.

The Holy Panchayat – A Critique The focal theme of the story is ‘upholding justice ’. The entire story shows the life of folks, their sufferings, their disputes, their faith in God, and their loyalty and justice. Jumman Sheik and Algu Chowdhari are childhood friends. Even though they are not close relatives, or belong to … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন

Critically analyse the character of Bishan Singh in Manto‟s

Sadat Hasan Manto’s Toba Tek Singh. The story is about Bishan Singh and some other lunatics who live in the Lahore Mental Asylum. The story starts two or three years after the Partition. The Government of India and Pakistan decided to exchange their lunatics from country to other. Muslim lunatics from India would be sent … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন

Comment on the aptness of the title of Narayan‟s „The M.C.C.‟

Cricket is a hugely popular sport in India. A holdover from the country’s past as a British colony, it is closely followed by millions of people, who elevate elite cricketers to the status of Bollywood movie stars. Something of this passionate enthusiasm for the game is captured by Narayan in “The M.C.C.” In this story, … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন

Write a critical appreciation of Coleridge’s “Frost at Midnight”.

The Divinity of Nature: The speaker of “Frost at Midnight” believes that people can become closer to God through nature. Since God created the natural world, the poem implies, it follows that lakes and forests and mountains are like God’s language; communing with nature, then, is a way of communing with God. The divinity of … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন

Explain the major socio-political issues that are addressed in ‘Toba Tek Singh’

ABSTRACT   Saadat Hasan Manto is one of the greatest short story writers in Urdu literature who has produced twenty two collections of short stories dealing with different subjects such as partition, human life, social taboos, communal violence, so on and so forth. His stories revolving round the subject of partition of the subcontinent after independence … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন

The present day occurrences in the villages of India can be seen in an embryonic form in ‘The Holy Panchayat’. Elucidate. OR 8. Throw light on the role and character of Algu Chaudhary in Premchand‟s „The Holy Panchayat‟.

Introduction ‘The Holy Panchayat’ or ‘Panch Parmeshwar’ as it was titled in Hindi carries the distinction of beingPremchand’s first story to be published in Hindi. Originally it had been written in Urdu and was titled‘Panchayat’ but Premchand’s desire to reach a wider readership led him to switch over to writing in Hindiand he translated this … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন

Critically consider the role of cricket in ‘The M.C.C.’.

Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord’s Cricket Ground, which it owns, in St John’s Wood, London.  The club was formerly the governing body of cricket retaining considerable global influence.

In 1788, the MCC took responsibility for the laws of cricket, issuing a revised version that year. Changes to these Laws are now determined by the International Cricket Council (ICC), but the copyright is still owned by MCC.[2] When the ICC was established in 1909, it was administered by the secretary of the MCC, and the president of MCC automatically assumed the chairmanship of ICC until 1989.

For much of the 20th century, commencing with the 1903–04 tour of Australia and ending with the 1976–77 tour of India, MCC organised international tours on behalf of the England cricket team for playing Test matches. On these tours, the England team played under the auspices of MCC in non-international matches. In 1993, its administrative and governance functions were transferred to the ICC and the Test and County Cricket Board (TCCB).

MCC teams are essentially ad hoc because they have never taken part in any formal competition, but have always held first-class status when playing against first-class opposition.

The present president of the club is Stephen Fry, who assumed the twelve-month office on 1 October 2022, replacing Clare Connor, the first woman to hold the post. In May 2023, he named his successor as Mark Nicholas, the former Hampshire captain.

History and role :

The origin of MCC was as a gentlemen’s club that had flourished through most of the 18th century, including, at least in part, an existence as the original London Cricket Club, which had played at the Artillery Ground through the middle years of the century. Many of its members became involved with the Hambledon Club through the 1770s and then, in the early 1780s, had returned to the London area where the White Conduit Club had begun in Islington. It is not known for certain when the White Conduit was founded but it seems to have been after 1780 and certainly by 1785. According to Sir Pelham Warner, it was formed in 1782 as an offshoot from a West End convivial club called the Je-ne-sais-quoi, some of whose members frequented the White Conduit House in Islington and played matches on the neighbouring White Conduit Fields, which had been a prominent venue for cricket in the 1720s.[7] Arthur Haygarth said in Scores and Biographies that “the Marylebone Club was founded in 1787 from the White Conduit’s members” but the date of the formation of the White Conduit “could not be found”.

This gentlemen’s club, which was multi-purpose, had a social meeting place at the Star and Garter on Pall Mall. It was the same club that was responsible for drafting the Laws of Cricket at various times, most notably in 1744 and 1774, and this lawgiving responsibility was soon to be vested in the MCC as the final repose of these cricketing gentlemen. When the White Conduit began, its leading lights were George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea (1752–1826) and the Hon. Colonel Charles Lennox (1764–1819), later succeeding as the 4th Duke of Richmond. White Conduit was nominally an exclusive club that only “gentlemen” might play for, but the club did engage professionals and one of these was Thomas Lord, a man who was recognised for his business acumen (becoming a successful wine merchant) “as well as his bowling ability”.

The new club might have continued except that White Conduit Fields was an open area allowing members of the public, including the rowdier elements, to watch the matches and to voice their opinions on the play and the players. The White Conduit gentlemen were not amused by such interruptions and decided to look for a more private venue of their own. Winchilsea and Lennox asked Lord to find a new ground and offered him a guarantee against any losses he may suffer in the venture. Lord took a lease from the Portman Estate on some land at Dorset Fields where Dorset Square is now sited; and the ground was prepared and opened in 1787. It was initially called the New Cricket Ground, perhaps because it was off what was then called “the New Road” in Marylebone, when the first known match was played there on 21 May but, by the end of July, it was known as Lord’sAs it was in Marylebone, the White Conduit members who relocated to it soon decided to call themselves the “Mary-le-bone Club”.The exact date of MCC’s foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787. On 10 & 11 July 1837, a South v North match was staged at Lord’s to commemorate the MCC’s Golden Jubilee. Warner described it as “a Grand Match to celebrate the Jubilee of the Club” and reproduced the full scorecard.

On 25 April 1787, the London Morning Herald newspaper carried a notice: “The Members of the Cricket Club are desired to meet at the Star and Garter


Each President is required to nominate their successor at the Annual General Meeting (AGM) which takes place during his/her term of office. The club chairman and the treasurer serve a three-year term. Both are appointed by the committee (but subject to approval of the voting members). Both can serve terms in succession. The secretary and chief executive (a joint role) is the senior employee of the club and is appointed solely by the MCC committee.

The committee consists of the above officers plus the chairmen of any other committees that may exist at the time of any meeting plus twelve elected members. Elected committee members are appointed for a three-year term. An elected committee member cannot be re-elected upon retirement unless there is a gap of at least one year between terms of office.


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Assess V. M. Basheer’s art of characterization with reference to ‘The Card-Sharper’s Daughter’

The Author and his Milieu Vaikom Mohammad Basheer, who did not publish much in his literary career spanning threedecades, managed to revoluonize the Malayalam literary scene, especially the art of storytelling, by bringing in radical themes and subjects and also by rejecng Sanskrised Malayalamin favour of the colloquial and the vernacular.  His literary vocabulary consisted … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন

2. Discuss the writers and the literary texts that you come across in Ambai’s ‘Squirrel’.

INTRODUCTION: ‘The Squirrel’ is a famous short story by Ambai. It was written in Tamil Language titled ‘Anil’ by Ambai and was translated into English by Vasanth Kannabiran and Chudamani Ragavan in 1992. The author is known for writing about women. This story also brings out the problems faced by women. Through this story she … বিস্তারিত পড়ুন